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Old 06-28-2011, 07:14 AM
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Default Aysnumvi leNa'vi (Na'vi Lessons)

Verb transitivity:

A transitive verb is a verb with an action that can be directly applied to an object. I.E. you can think something, you can know something, you can hunt something.

In Na'vi when using transitive verbs (fpl, omum, taron, etc) we have suffixes called "case endings" which are the agentive to mark the subject (doer) of the action, and the patientive to mark the object (receiver of the action).The agentive suffix looks like -l (or -l if the word ends in a consonant) and the patientive suffix looks like -t(i) (or -it if the word ends in a consonant).

An INtransitive verb's action can NOT be directly applied to an object. I.E. you cannot sleep something, you cannot laugh something, you cannot die something.



Lenition and Plurals:

Lenition is the changing of the first letter of a word for ease of pronunciation when a lenition causing prefix is added. The letters that lenit are:

Kx-->K

Tx-->T

Px-->P

K-->H

T/Ts-->S

P-->F

'-->nothing, it vanishes (except in the word 'u [must always be ayu, u cannot stand alone] and in front of pseudo-vowels ll and rr.)

The plural prefixes are as follows:

Me+ dual (2)

Pxe+ trial (3)

Ay+ 4+ and general plurals

All plural prefixes are lenition-causing, indicated by the +

Note: when using the ay+ prefix on a word that lenits (i.e. tute) you have the option of leaving off the ay+ and just using the lenited word (sute). This only works with ay+ and on words that start with a letter that lenits though.



Adpositions: (adp.)

Since we just talked about lenition, I want to quickly list off the adps that lenit. They are:

sre+ before

pxisre+ right before

ro+ at (locative)

w+ against

fpi+ for the sake/benefit of

m+ in/on

l+ via

Adps can either come separated before a word or be attached to the end of a word. They can only go with nouns and pronouns. We have confirmation from Frommer that it is ok if an adp forms a double consonant cluster when attached to the end of a word.



Infixes (Part 1):

To start with, I want to introduce you all to the basic tense infixes of Na'vi. They are:

<ay> future

<m> immediate future

<asy> future, determined

<sy> immediate future, determined

<am> past

<y> immediate past

These are all position 1 (P1) infixes. Another P1 infix you may have seen used a lot is the <iv> infix, called the 'subjunctive mood.' This is an interesting little guy because it doesn't change the meaning of the verb at all. It is required after modal verbs (fmi, tsun, new, zene/zenke and kan) to mark the verb that is being 'controlled' by the modal. More on modal verbs in a later lesson. <iv> is also required after conjunctions (i.e. fte and tsn) and other words like sng'i. More can be found in the dictionary. <iv> is also used for wishes and hopes i.e. " 'ivong Na'vi" (may Na'vi blossom) and optionally with commands i.e. "kiv!" (go!) but remember, it doesn't change the meaning. Your command is just as commanding without <iv>.



Infixes (part 2):

In this lesson I want to show you the aspect infixes, their combined forms, a couple other P1 infixes and the 2 P0 infixes.

Aspects:
er indicates an ongoing action. Turns the verb into an -ing form and means 'I am [verb]-ing.' Note: er and "lu" are never used together!

ol indicates a completed action


Note that these are not called tenses...because they're not. The actions aren't necessarily ongoing in the present or completed in the past. These infixes can be combined with the tense infixes. The combined forms are as follows (these are all P1):

ary (ay+er): future ongoing. 'I will be [verb]-ing'

ry (y+er): immediate future ongoing. 'I will be [verb]-ing soon'

arm (am+er): past ongoing. 'I was/have been [verb]-ing'

rm (m+er): immediate past ongoing. 'I was just/have just been [verb]-ing'

aly (ay+ol): future finished. 'I will have [verb]-ed'

ly (y+ol): immediate future finished. 'I will have [verb]-ed soon.' Note: this one is not used frequently at all. In fact, I don't think I've used it once in the almost year that I've been speaking/studying Na'vi.

alm (am+ol): past finished. 'I had [verb]-ed'

lm (m+ol): immediate past finished. 'I have just [verb]-ed.'


Next I want to move on to the "participle infixes." These infixes turn the verb into an adjective and are also P1.

<us> turns the verb into an -ing adjective form and describes some that is doing that action in the present. I.E. Maweyatan's favorite: nantang atswusayon= flying viperwolf. Note that because the verb has become an adjective, we need the -a- of attribution to link the adjective to the noun it's describing. More on adjectives in a later lesson.

<awn> turns the verb into a past tense adjective form and describes something that gone through the verb's action. I.E. syuve ayawnom= eaten food. Same thing here with the -a- of attribution.

Note: The adjectives formed by these infixes can not be used with "lu" or "slu."


For the last part of this lesson I want to show you the pre-first (P0) infixes. They are:

<p> reflexive, doing the verb to yourself. 'Oe tpakuk' (I hit myself)

<eyk> causative, something is making this verb happen. 'Ngal oeti heykangham' (You make me laugh). Note that this infix changes the transitivity of a verb. That is, an intransitive verb (hangham) becomes transitive. You can refer back to the first lesson about transitivity if you need to


(Continued in the next post)

Last edited by Txon Rolyu; 09-16-2011 at 04:41 AM.
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Old 06-28-2011, 07:15 AM
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Default Aysnumvi leNa'vi continued

Infixes (part 3):

In this lesson I want to show you all the P2 infixes and and go over what I mean by infix 'positions.' First I want to start with the mood infixes:

<ei> positive mood, the speaker likes/enjoys/feels good about the action

<ng> negative mood, the speaker does not like/enjoy/feel good about the action



The final 2 P2 infixes are:

<uy> ceremonial/honorific. Only to be used in highly formal situations.

<ats> evidential. 'I seemed to [verb].



Now for infix positions....what does that mean? Infix position refers to the syllable of the verb. P0 and P1 go before the vowel of the 2nd to last syllable and P2 goes before the vowel of the last syllable. Aaaanndddd now you're confused! How about some examples yes?

1 syllable words are easy, the infixes just go <0><1><2> all right next to each other. Just be sure they're before the final vowel i.e.: sti (to be angry) the final vowel is 'i' so: st<0><1><2>i; and sop (travel) the final vowel is 'o' so: s<0><1><2>op.

2 syllable words: same infix order as always, but in 2 syllable words they are 'split up' a bit. I.E. taron (hunt) 1st syllable vowel is 'a' and the 2nd syllable vowel is 'o' so the infixes go t<0><1>ar<2>on. Same story for a word like nume (learn): 1st syllable vowel is 'u' and 2nd syllable vowel is 'e' so we get n<0><1>um<2>e.



Things to watch out for:

The glottal stop '. The gottal stop is a consonant in Na'vi. Infixes never come directly before a glottal stop. Always look for the vowels.

Compound words i.e. "slpey" (hope), "ronsrelngop" (imagine, envision), and " 'awstengyem" (join 2 things together). These are 'special words' because although they have multiple syllables and vowels, in all these words the infixes actually go before the vowel of the last syllable. Sl pelun ma karyu? Rutxe oeru piveng. Well because the last syllable is where the actual verb is: Slpey, ronsrelngop, and 'awstengyem. Words like this are usually marked in the dictionary with a (ii).

si verbs i.e. srung si (help), pamrel si (write), txle si (request). In si verbs all infixes go in 'si' because that's the actual verb.



Exceptions to the Free Word Order Rule:

Adjective/noun pairs: I discussed the -a- of attribution in an earlier lesson so it should be a bit familiar. When describing a noun with an adjective (adj), the adj must always be next to the noun it's describing and it must have the -a- of attribution attached to it in between the it and the noun. I.E. If you want to say 'blue people' we have the adj "ean" for 'blue' and the noun "sute" (short plural) for 'people'. Because "ean" is the adj describing "sute," it must have the -a- of attribution attached between it and "sute." The free word order rule does apply in the sense that the phrase can be either "eana sute" or "sute aean" but adj and noun must always be next to each other and the adj must always have the -a- of attribution between it an the noun it's describing. A way to remember this is 'a points the way to your noun today.' Cheesey, I know, but it helps.

Possessee/possessor pairs: When talking about someone possessing something, the possessor must always be next to the thing possessed. I.E. 'my ikran,' 'your bow,' and 'his horse' must be "oey ikran," "ngey tsko," and "pey pa'li" respectively. Same thing with the adjectives tho, it can be "oey ikran" or "ikran oey so long as possessee is next to possessor.

Exception to the exception: When using a noun in the genetive case ([gen]; will explain in a moment) with an adj describing another noun, the adj can be between the gen and the other noun. I.E. "oey h'ia tngopit" (my little creation. order: gen, adj, noun) and "koren a'awve trusey 'awsiteng" (first rule of living together, order: noun, adj, gen, adv) are both acceptable.

Now about this 'genetive case' business. The genetive case is a suffix that shows possession in the sense of his, her, my, mine, your, yours, etc. It can also be used for of/of the. The suffix looks like - for words ending in consonants and -y for words ending in vowels (ecxept o and u, they use -). Note: for the words po/poe (he/she) we don't bother with putting the genetive on both of them. We just use the short form, "pey" which can mean 'his' or 'her' depending on context.

On the topic of possession, to say I/he/she/they (etc) have in Na'vi, we use a 'lu/dative' constrution. I.E. 'I have a bow' would be "tsko lu oeru." The dative is also a suffix and basically means 'to-noun.' In the sentence, the dative is on "oe" (I/me) so it means to me. The litteral translatioin of the sentence is 'bow is to me,' but in Na'vi it would be understood as 'I have a bow.' Note: here you want to have "lu" and the dative next to each other. I hope all that made sense.


Moving on to the next and final word order exception, ke/r' + verb pairs: First I want to point out the difference between "ke" and "r'." "Ke" means 'not' and is just used to negate verbs. I.E. the sentences 'I can't see,' 'I don't know,' and 'he doesn't go' would all be jobs for "ke." "R'" on the other hand means 'do not' and is only for use in commands i.e. the famous line from the movie: "txopu r' si tsamsiyu" (don't fear warrior). That said, when using either of these, they must be in front of the verb they are negating.


Well that should be enough for y'all to chew on for a while. Please feel free to ask any questions you may have and I'll answer them to the best of my ablitity

Last edited by Txon Rolyu; 06-28-2011 at 07:59 AM.
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Old 06-28-2011, 08:02 AM
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Irayo!

My brain is melting.

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Old 06-30-2011, 05:37 AM
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OOOOOOOOOOOOOOR

You could just check out Na'vi in a Nutshell document.

Of course if there is something specific you have a question about, ask....

I prefer a less technical method and teaching by example.

PS. Hi Txon!
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Old 06-30-2011, 05:57 AM
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That's what I'm trying to is teach by example, I have a ton in my post. I'm also trying to get people to ask questions.

Am I being too technical? Never thought I'd hear that!

-Txon Rolyu
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Old 06-30-2011, 06:14 AM
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Well there are always those nice colorful prezis ta Le'eylan
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Old 06-30-2011, 06:34 AM
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TireaAean 'efu nitram.
 
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to prevent tl;dr syndrome, I would have split each of these headings into different posts or maybe better, separate threads. that's a lot of info, perhaps it looks intimidating.
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Old 06-30-2011, 06:42 AM
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Hm, I see your point. I could try and split them up? That would take a while.

-Txon Rolyu
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Fpl na Na'vi. Plltxe na Na'vi. Tran na Na'vi. Kame na Na'vi.
Think like the Na'vi. Talk like the Na'vi. Walk like the Na'vi. See like the Na'vi.

Tokx alu tawtute, tirea leNa'vi
Human body, Na'vi spirit

Uniltrantokxl oeri txe'lanit n'aw takeiuk n'ul txa' fralo
Avatar only strikes my heart harder every time

Tsaye'a ngal fra'ut a krr tse'a ngal ke'ut
When you see nothing, you will see everything

L'fyari leNa'vi: Rutxe fmivi. Zene fko tskxekeng sivi fte nivume. Txopu r' si fwa lu keyawr.
Regarding the Na'vi language: Please try. One must practice in order to learn. Don't fear being wrong

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Old 06-30-2011, 06:51 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Txon Rolyu View Post
That's what I'm trying to is teach by example, I have a ton in my post. I'm also trying to get people to ask questions.

Am I being too technical? Never thought I'd hear that!

-Txon Rolyu
Maybe not too technical, just perhaps a little too prolific all at once. Honestly, are you more likely to read long stories if they're broken up, or all in one piece?

Oops, you already knew that. Sorry I type so slowly. And yes, splitting them up now would take a while. It's easier if you do it right from the start, though.

Actually, you're fairly good until "Exceptions to the free order rule." There the text gets really dense and needs more spacing out, I think. But good job!
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It is so simple to be happy, but so difficult to be simple. ~ Guruji

Last edited by Alyara Arati; 06-30-2011 at 07:00 AM.
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Old 06-30-2011, 09:23 AM
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Well, I certainly don't mean to scare anyone....I'm just trying to help. I really hope people will ask me questions if they don't understand something...

-Txon Rolyu
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Fpl na Na'vi. Plltxe na Na'vi. Tran na Na'vi. Kame na Na'vi.
Think like the Na'vi. Talk like the Na'vi. Walk like the Na'vi. See like the Na'vi.

Tokx alu tawtute, tirea leNa'vi
Human body, Na'vi spirit

Uniltrantokxl oeri txe'lanit n'aw takeiuk n'ul txa' fralo
Avatar only strikes my heart harder every time

Tsaye'a ngal fra'ut a krr tse'a ngal ke'ut
When you see nothing, you will see everything

L'fyari leNa'vi: Rutxe fmivi. Zene fko tskxekeng sivi fte nivume. Txopu r' si fwa lu keyawr.
Regarding the Na'vi language: Please try. One must practice in order to learn. Don't fear being wrong


Last edited by Txon Rolyu; 06-30-2011 at 09:25 AM.
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Old 06-30-2011, 01:18 PM
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My advice to anyone wanting to learn Na'vi- decide what you want to say, make an attempt to translate it and then post your attempt to an experienced Na'vi speaker and await correction. If they don't correct it, hooray! Well done you. If they do correct it, you've picked up some new information, and that is also good! Don't be disheartened, just plough forward and learn from your mistakes.

Last edited by ISV Venture Star; 06-30-2011 at 01:20 PM.
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Old 07-01-2011, 09:31 PM
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Irayo

Just read these... Not sure I took it all in, but hopefully at least some. I think my main issue is just finding the time...
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Old 07-07-2011, 06:31 AM
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Kaltxi ma tmuskan(en)s

Is there a way to get a Na'vi dictionary of the words that is up to date? I have Avatar Activist Survival Guide, but that's not enough. I have many different hobbies, a house with a lot of land to take care of, travel for work, work out a lot, ect. yacktey, smackety. Avatar Nation has a podcast, but it needs to be one with all Na'vi learning. I wish I could just go to sleep with it on a loop to learn it. If I didn't need to sleep it would be greater because I could get more done.

Iongoky fifya (Born this Way, before Lady Gaga said it)

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Old 07-07-2011, 09:00 AM
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*tsmukan

Ok a word to all about the ASG: DO NOT use the words in it!!!

The dictionary in the back is somewhat correct but don't swear by it. The "words" in the chapter about the Na'vi are totally gibberish. They were published prematurely and withOUT the knowledge or approval of Frommer. He is still angry about that to this day.

Anyway about your question, do you have an iPhone or iPod Touch? THere is a free dictionary app you can download for it. That dictionary is probably the most up to date version there is. It updates frequently and automatically. If you don't have iStuff, there is a Na'vi to English dictionary here along with a vocab list, how Na'vi numbers work, and how to ask questions and respond to them. Only thing is I'm not sure how up to date the dictionary is.

Hope this helps!

-Txon Rolyu
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Fpl na Na'vi. Plltxe na Na'vi. Tran na Na'vi. Kame na Na'vi.
Think like the Na'vi. Talk like the Na'vi. Walk like the Na'vi. See like the Na'vi.

Tokx alu tawtute, tirea leNa'vi
Human body, Na'vi spirit

Uniltrantokxl oeri txe'lanit n'aw takeiuk n'ul txa' fralo
Avatar only strikes my heart harder every time

Tsaye'a ngal fra'ut a krr tse'a ngal ke'ut
When you see nothing, you will see everything

L'fyari leNa'vi: Rutxe fmivi. Zene fko tskxekeng sivi fte nivume. Txopu r' si fwa lu keyawr.
Regarding the Na'vi language: Please try. One must practice in order to learn. Don't fear being wrong

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Old 07-07-2011, 09:11 AM
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There's also a learn Na'vi dictionary app for Andriod, though I think it's word list is also out of date and could use an update.

Awesome sig Txon.

- Mikko
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